Blockchain protocols

This is a vulnerability classification table for blockchain protocols (v2.0)


  • Direct theft of funds

  • Permanent freezing of funds

  • Total network shutdown (not able to confirm new transactions). Fix requires a hardfork.


  • Application level DoS (which leads to crushing of any node). It is possible to firewall-out the attacker.

  • Temporary freezing of network transactions

  • Temporary freezing of funds


  • Application level DoS which leads to shutdown of minor part of nodes

  • Unintended smart contract behavior


  • A shutdown of less than 25% of network processing nodes (no brute force actions)

  • Modification of transaction fees

If the issue is not under one of the mentioned vulnerabilities, we use the Common Vulnerability Scoring System to assess the severity of your vulnerability.

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